Unveiling Gender Disparities in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Prognosis

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) stands as one of the most prevalent inherited cardiovascular disorders, affecting approximately 0.2% of the population. Recent insights have indicated that gender may play a crucial role in shaping the clinical presentation and prognosis of this condition. However, unraveling the intricate relationship between sex and outcomes in HCM has remained a topic of ongoing debate.

Meta-Analysis Offers New Insights into HCM Prognosis

Addressing the lingering uncertainty, a systematic review and meta-analysis encompassing multiple studies set out to examine the association between gender and adverse outcomes in patients with HCM. Drawing from a comprehensive analysis of 27 cohorts involving over 42,000 individuals, the findings illuminate significant sex-specific disparities in prognosis.

Clinical Profile Differences Between Genders

Analyzing the data, the researchers uncovered distinct clinical characteristics in female patients with HCM. Notably, compared to their male counterparts, female subjects experienced an older age of onset, higher left ventricular ejection fraction, and greater left ventricular outflow tract gradient. These factors contribute to the unique disease trajectory experienced by women with HCM.

A Harsher Outlook for Women with HCM

The meta-analysis revealed that female patients faced higher risks of HCM-related events, major cardiovascular events, HCM-related death, cardiovascular death, noncardiovascular death, and all-cause mortality. These findings suggest that gender exerts a profound influence on the prognosis of HCM, necessitating tailored management strategies.

Exploring the Complexity of Prognostic Factors

While the meta-analysis identified notable disparities in various adverse outcomes between genders, certain outcomes, such as atrial fibrillation, ventricular arrhythmia, sudden cardiac death, and composite endpoints, did not exhibit significant statistical associations. These findings highlight the intricate interplay of multiple factors influencing HCM prognosis.

Implications for Clinical Practice

The emerging evidence presented by this meta-analysis holds important implications for the diagnosis, management, and treatment of HCM. Future guidelines may emphasize the significance of sex-specific risk assessment and tailored approaches for patients with this condition. By recognizing the distinct prognostic patterns associated with gender, healthcare professionals can refine their strategies to optimize patient outcomes.

Towards Personalized Management of HCM

As the understanding of HCM evolves, acknowledging the impact of gender on prognosis becomes increasingly crucial. These findings underscore the need for continued research, clinical vigilance, and the development of evidence-based guidelines that incorporate sex-specific considerations in HCM management. By tailoring interventions to individual patient characteristics, healthcare providers can strive for more personalized and effective care.


The systematic review and meta-analysis shed light on the intricate relationship between gender and prognosis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Female patients with HCM exhibit unique clinical characteristics and face higher risks of adverse outcomes. These findings call for further research and consideration of sex-specific risk assessment in the management of HCM, ultimately aiming to improve patient care and outcomes.